This is an introduction to linear trend analysis from an estimation perspective, applied to estimating the linear trend among population means. The contents of this introduction is based on Maxwell, Delaney, and Kelley (2017) and Rosenthal, Rosnow, and Rubin (2000). I have taken the (invented) data from Haans (2018). The estimation perspective to statistical analysis is aimed at obtaining point and interval estimates of effect sizes. Here, I will use the frequentist perspective of obtaining a point estimate and a 95% Confidence Interval of the relevant effect size. For linear trend analysis, the relevant effect size is the slope coefficient of the linear trend, so, the purpose of the analysis is to estimate the value of the slope and the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. We will use contrast analysis to obtain the relevant data.

[Note: A pdf-file that differs only slightly from this blogpost can be found on my Researchgate page: here; I suggest Haans (2018) for an easy to follow introduction to contrast analysis, which should really help understanding what is being said below].

# The small S scientist

On trying to be scientific with a small S

## Monday, 26 August 2019

## Sunday, 14 April 2019

### Planning for Precise Contrast Estimates: Introduction and Tutorial (Preprint)

I just finished a preprint of an introduction and tutorial to sample size planning for precision of contrast estimates. The tutorial focuses on single factor between and within subjects designs, and mixed factorial designs with one within and one between factor. The tutorial contains R-code for sample size planning in these designs.

The preprint is availabe on researchgate: Click (but I am just as happy to send it to you if you like; just let me know).

The preprint is availabe on researchgate: Click (but I am just as happy to send it to you if you like; just let me know).

## Thursday, 4 April 2019

### Contrast analysis with R: Tutorial for factorial mixed designs

In this tutorial I will show how contrast estimates can be obtained with R. Previous posts focused on the analyses in factorial between and within designs, now I will focus on a mixed design with one between participants factor and one within participants factor. I will discuss how to obtain an estimate of an interaction contrast using a dataset provided by Haans (2018).

I will illustrate two approaches, the first approach is to use transformed scores in combination with one-sample t-tests, and the other approach uses the univariate mixed model approach. As was explained in the previous tutorial, the first approach tests each contrast against it's own error variance, whereas in the mixed model approach a common error variance is used (which requires statistical assumptions that will probably not apply in practice; the advantage of the mixed model approach, if its assumptions apply, is that the Margin of Error of the contrast estimate is somewhat smaller).

Again, our example is taken from Haans (2018; see also this post). It considers the effect of students' seating distance from the teacher and the educational performance of the students: the closer to the teacher the student is seated, the higher the performance. A "theory "explaining the effect is that the effect is mainly caused by the teacher having decreased levels of eye contact with the students sitting farther to the back in the lecture hall.

To test that theory, a experiment was conducted with N = 9 participants in a factorial mixed design (also called a split-plot design), with two fixed factors: the between participants Sunglasses (with or without), and the within participants factor Location (row 1 through row 4). The dependent variable was the score on a 10-item questionnaire about the contents of the lecture. So, we have a 2 by 4 mixed factorial design, with n = 9 participants in each combination of the factor levels.

We will again focus on obtaining an interaction contrast: we will estimate the extent to which the difference between the mean retention score on the first row and those on the other rows differs between the conditions with and without sunglasses.

I will illustrate two approaches, the first approach is to use transformed scores in combination with one-sample t-tests, and the other approach uses the univariate mixed model approach. As was explained in the previous tutorial, the first approach tests each contrast against it's own error variance, whereas in the mixed model approach a common error variance is used (which requires statistical assumptions that will probably not apply in practice; the advantage of the mixed model approach, if its assumptions apply, is that the Margin of Error of the contrast estimate is somewhat smaller).

Again, our example is taken from Haans (2018; see also this post). It considers the effect of students' seating distance from the teacher and the educational performance of the students: the closer to the teacher the student is seated, the higher the performance. A "theory "explaining the effect is that the effect is mainly caused by the teacher having decreased levels of eye contact with the students sitting farther to the back in the lecture hall.

To test that theory, a experiment was conducted with N = 9 participants in a factorial mixed design (also called a split-plot design), with two fixed factors: the between participants Sunglasses (with or without), and the within participants factor Location (row 1 through row 4). The dependent variable was the score on a 10-item questionnaire about the contents of the lecture. So, we have a 2 by 4 mixed factorial design, with n = 9 participants in each combination of the factor levels.

We will again focus on obtaining an interaction contrast: we will estimate the extent to which the difference between the mean retention score on the first row and those on the other rows differs between the conditions with and without sunglasses.

## Using SPSS

### Per contrast error variance

## Tuesday, 26 March 2019

### The Anatidae Principle

If it looks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, we have at least to consider the possibility that we have a small aquatic bird of the family Anatidae on our hands.I like to teach my students how they can apply to their data-analysis what I call the Anatidae Principle (or the Principle of the Duck). (The name is obviously inspired by the above quote from Douglas Adam's

- Douglas Adams

*Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency*).

For the purpose of data-analysis, the Anatidae Principle simply boils down to the following: If it looks like you found a relation, difference, or effect in your sample you should at least consider the possibility that there indeed is a relation, difference or effect. That is, look at your data, summarize, make figures, and think (hard) about what your data potentially mean for the answer to your research question, hypotheses, hunches, whatever you like. Do this before you start calculating p-values, confidence intervals, Bayes Factors, Posterior distributions, etc., etc.

In my experience, researchers too often violate the Anatidae Principle: they calculate a p-value, and if it is not significant they simply ignore their sample results. Never mind that, as they predicted, group A outperforms group B, if it is not significant, they will claim they found no effect. And, worse still, believe it.

Kline (2013) ) (p. 117) gives solid advice:

"Null hypothesis rejections do not imply substantive significance, so researchers need other frames of reference to explain to their audiences why the results are interesting or important. A start is to learn to describe your results without mention of statistical significance at all. In its place, refer to descriptive statistics and effect sizes and explain why those effect sizes matter in a particular context. Doing so may seem odd at first, but you should understand that statistical tests are not generally necessary to detect meaningful or noteworthy effects, which should be obvious to visual inspection of relatively simple kinds of graphical displays (Cohen, 1994). The description of results at a level closer to the data may also help researchers to develop better communication skills."

## Friday, 22 March 2019

### Planning with assurance, with assurance

Planning for precision requires that we choose a target Margin of Error (MoE; see this post for an introduction to the basic concepts) and a value for assurance, the probability that MoE will not exceed our target MoE. What your exact target MoE will be depends on your research goals, of course.

Cumming and Calin-Jageman (2017, p. 277) propose a strategy for determining target MoE. You can use this strategy if your research goal is to provide strong evidence that the effect size is non-zero. The strategy is to divide the expected value of the difference by two, and to use that result as your target MoE.

Let's restrict our attention to the comparison of two means. If the expected difference between the two means is Cohens's d = .80, the proposed strategy is to set your target MoE at f = .40, which means that your target MoE is set at .40 standard deviations. If you plan for this value of target MoE with 80% assurance, the recommended sample size is n = 55 participants per group. These results are guaranteed to be true, if it is known for a fact that Cohen's d is .80 and all statistical assumptions apply.

But it is generally not known for a fact that Cohen's d has a particular value and so we need to answer a non-trivial question: what effect size can we reasonably expect? And, how can we have assurance that the MoE will not exceed half the

The procedure is as follows. In order to plan with approximately 80% assurance, estimate on the basis of your pilot the 80% confidence interval for the population effect size and use half the value of the lower limit for sample size planning with 90% assurance. This will give you 81% assurance that assurance MoE is no larger than half the

Cumming and Calin-Jageman (2017, p. 277) propose a strategy for determining target MoE. You can use this strategy if your research goal is to provide strong evidence that the effect size is non-zero. The strategy is to divide the expected value of the difference by two, and to use that result as your target MoE.

Let's restrict our attention to the comparison of two means. If the expected difference between the two means is Cohens's d = .80, the proposed strategy is to set your target MoE at f = .40, which means that your target MoE is set at .40 standard deviations. If you plan for this value of target MoE with 80% assurance, the recommended sample size is n = 55 participants per group. These results are guaranteed to be true, if it is known for a fact that Cohen's d is .80 and all statistical assumptions apply.

But it is generally not known for a fact that Cohen's d has a particular value and so we need to answer a non-trivial question: what effect size can we reasonably expect? And, how can we have assurance that the MoE will not exceed half the

**unknown**true effect size? One of the many options we have for answering this question is to conduct a pilot study, estimate the plausible values of the effect size and use these values for sample size planning. I will describe a strategy that basically mirrors the sample size planning for power approach described by Anderson, Kelley, and Maxwell (2017).The procedure is as follows. In order to plan with approximately 80% assurance, estimate on the basis of your pilot the 80% confidence interval for the population effect size and use half the value of the lower limit for sample size planning with 90% assurance. This will give you 81% assurance that assurance MoE is no larger than half the

**unknown**true effect size.## Saturday, 5 January 2019

### Contrast Analysis with R: Tutorial for Factorial Within Subjects Designs

In this post, I illustrate how to obtain contrast estimates in R for within subjects designs. I will illustrate two approaches. The first is to simply use the one-sample t-test on the transformed scores. This will replicate a contrast analysis done with SPSS GLM Repeated Measures. The second is to make use of mixed linear effects modeling with the lmer-function from the lme4 library.

Conceptually, the major difference between the two approaches is that in the latter approach we make use of a single shared error variance and covariance across conditions (we assume compound symmetry), whereas in the former each contrast has a separate error variance, depending on the specific conditions involved in the contrast (these conditions may have unequal variances and covariances).

As in the previous post (https://the-small-s-scientist.blogspot.com/2018/12/contrast-analysis-with-r-tutorial.html), we will focus our attention on obtaining an interaction contrast estimate.

Again, our example is taken from Haans (2018; see also this post). It considers the effect of students' seating distance from the teacher and the educational performance of the students: the closer to the teacher the student is seated, the higher the performance. A "theory "explaining the effect is that the effect is mainly caused by the teacher having decreased levels of eye contact with the students sitting farther to the back in the lecture hall.

To test that theory, a experiment was conducted with N = 9 participants in a completely within-subjects-design (also called a fully-crossed design), with two fixed factors: sunglasses (with or without) and location (row 1 through row 4). The dependent variable was the score on a 10-item questionnaire about the contents of the lecture. So, we have a 2 by 4 within-subjects-design, with n = 9 participants in each combination of the factor levels.

We will again focus on obtaining an interaction contrast: we will estimate the extent to which the difference between the mean retention score on the first row and those on the other rows differs between the conditions with and without sunglasses.

Conceptually, the major difference between the two approaches is that in the latter approach we make use of a single shared error variance and covariance across conditions (we assume compound symmetry), whereas in the former each contrast has a separate error variance, depending on the specific conditions involved in the contrast (these conditions may have unequal variances and covariances).

As in the previous post (https://the-small-s-scientist.blogspot.com/2018/12/contrast-analysis-with-r-tutorial.html), we will focus our attention on obtaining an interaction contrast estimate.

Again, our example is taken from Haans (2018; see also this post). It considers the effect of students' seating distance from the teacher and the educational performance of the students: the closer to the teacher the student is seated, the higher the performance. A "theory "explaining the effect is that the effect is mainly caused by the teacher having decreased levels of eye contact with the students sitting farther to the back in the lecture hall.

To test that theory, a experiment was conducted with N = 9 participants in a completely within-subjects-design (also called a fully-crossed design), with two fixed factors: sunglasses (with or without) and location (row 1 through row 4). The dependent variable was the score on a 10-item questionnaire about the contents of the lecture. So, we have a 2 by 4 within-subjects-design, with n = 9 participants in each combination of the factor levels.

We will again focus on obtaining an interaction contrast: we will estimate the extent to which the difference between the mean retention score on the first row and those on the other rows differs between the conditions with and without sunglasses.

## Obtaining the contrast estimate with SPSS Repeated Measures

Labels:
ANOVA,
interaction,
interaction contrast,
lme4,
lmer.,
mixed model,
R,
SPSS,
tutorial

## Sunday, 23 December 2018

### Contrast Analysis with R: Tutorial for obtaining contrast estimates in a 2-way factorial design

In this post, I want to show how contrast estimates can be obtained with R. In particular, I want to show how we can replicate, with R, a contrast analysis of an interaction contrast in a 2 x 4 between subjects design.

Our example is from Haans (2018; see also this post). It considers the effect of students' seating distance from the teacher and the educational performance of the students: the closer to the teacher the student is seated, the higher the performance. A "theory "explaining the effect is that the effect is mainly caused by the teacher having decreased levels of eye contact with the students sitting farther to the back in the lecture hall.

To test that theory, a experiment was conducted with N = 72 participants attending a lecture. The lecture was given to two independent groups of 36 participants. The first group attended the lecture while the teacher was wearing dark sunglasses, the second group attented the lecture while the teacher was not wearing sunglasses. All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 possible rows, with row 1 being closest to the teacher and row 4 the furthest from the teacher The dependent variable was the score on a 10-item questionnaire about the contents of the lecture. So, we have a 2 by 4 factorial design, with n = 9 participants in each combination of the factor levels.

Here we focus on obtaining an interaction contrast: we will estimate the extent to which the difference between the mean retention score of the participants on the first row and those on the other rows differs between the conditions with and without sunglasses.

Our example is from Haans (2018; see also this post). It considers the effect of students' seating distance from the teacher and the educational performance of the students: the closer to the teacher the student is seated, the higher the performance. A "theory "explaining the effect is that the effect is mainly caused by the teacher having decreased levels of eye contact with the students sitting farther to the back in the lecture hall.

To test that theory, a experiment was conducted with N = 72 participants attending a lecture. The lecture was given to two independent groups of 36 participants. The first group attended the lecture while the teacher was wearing dark sunglasses, the second group attented the lecture while the teacher was not wearing sunglasses. All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 possible rows, with row 1 being closest to the teacher and row 4 the furthest from the teacher The dependent variable was the score on a 10-item questionnaire about the contents of the lecture. So, we have a 2 by 4 factorial design, with n = 9 participants in each combination of the factor levels.

Here we focus on obtaining an interaction contrast: we will estimate the extent to which the difference between the mean retention score of the participants on the first row and those on the other rows differs between the conditions with and without sunglasses.

## The interaction contrast with SPSS

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